Fyzikální ústav Akademie věd ČR


Seminář / Út, 28/02/2017 - 10:00 - 11:00

Ladislav Kvasz (Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic; Department of Mathematics, Pedagogical Faculty of Charles University)

Many of the outstanding discoveries in the history of physics were closely tied to fundamental linguistic innovations, which made them possible. The aim of the present paper is an analysis of the main linguistic innovations contained in the works of Galileo, Descartes and Newton.

Seminář / Út, 28/02/2017 - 15:00 - 16:00

Libor Šmejkal (Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-16253 Praha 6 Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz, Germany Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-12116 Prague 2)

Abstract: Merging topology with magnetism is rapidly becoming a new direction in the field of topological quantum materials boosted by the recent discoveries of Dirac and Weyl fermions. However, merits of the spin-momentum locked Dirac quasiparticles of topological insulators did not reach its full potential for spintronics due to the practical (low temperatures and bulk doping problem) as well as fundamental limitations (challenging symmetry and dimensional compatibilities).

Seminář / St, 01/03/2017 - 14:00 - 15:30

Lukáš Palatinus (Fyzikální ústav AV ČR)

Our ability to determine crystal structure of almost any material underlies the advance of so many scientific disciplines and it has become so naturally accepted that we may be misled to believing it is an easy and always available procedure. One of especially hard problems is the structure analysis of microand nanocrystalline materials. The solution is the use of electrons as the probing radiation. The lecture will describe the developments in the field of electron diffraction over the past decade that changed electron diffraction to a commonly accepted and accurate method in structure analysis of nanocrystals. The lecture will also explain and put in broader context the recent publication (Science 355, 166), which demonstrates the accuracy of the method.

Seminář / Út, 07/03/2017 - 10:00 - 11:00

Fumito Araoka (Physicochemical Soft Matter Research Unit RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Japan)

Abstract: Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defect studies are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-⁠assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-⁠assembly.

Seminář / Út, 14/03/2017 - 10:00 - 11:00

Enrique Montes (Fyzikální ústav AV ČR)

First principles calculations have been implemented to study the ground state and electron transport properties of nanoscale materials and to evaluate its performance in electronic devices (magnetic tunneling junctions, field effect transistors and gas sensors). The ground state properties are studied within density functional theory using the SIESTA code, whereas the transport properties are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green’s functions formalism implemented in the SMEAGOL code.

Seminář / Út, 28/03/2017 - 10:00 - 11:00

Thomas Seyller (TU Chemnitz, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany)

Ten years ago, ground-breaking experimental studies of graphene – a monolayer of carbon with honeycomb structure – were reported. Charge carriers in graphene are described by the Weyl-Hamiltonian for massless particles, resulting in interesting properties such as an unusual quantum Hall effect or Klein tunneling which sparked the interest of scientists around the world. They are characterized by a high mobility, which makes graphene interesting for electronic applications such as high frequency transistors and frequency mixers.

Seminář / Čt, 06/04/2017 - 15:00 - 16:00

Karl-Heinz Ernst (Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Research and Technology Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich )

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry 2016 is shared by Jean-Pierre Sauvage, J. Fraser Stoddard and Ben Feringa for the development of molecular machines. The three researchers designed molecules with subunits that moved relative to each other in a controlled manner, and therefore founded a new field in chemistry. Some of their molecules can, for example under influence of light, even fulfill work. The three laid the foundation for nanoscopic motors, like molecular escalators, molecular muscles and nanocars.

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