Multilayer and gradient structures


In addition to conventional homogeneous coatings, it is advantageous for certain applications to create a film that has different properties (composition) at different depths, or a structure consisting of several different layers. Our techniques allow the coating to be created layer by layer, including combinations of different materials.
 Applications where this technique can be used successfully include optical films that conduct light (waveguides), films to improve the adhesion of films to a substrate, and films that use quantum phenomena for their applications.


  • Waveguide structures based on Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiNbO3 matrices doped with erbium and neodymium.
  • Multilayer structures based on TiN/DLC:Ti and CrN/DLC:Cr
  • For protective coatings where high adhesion and resistance to thermal stress are required, we use gradient doping of diamond-like carbon (DLC) with chromium and titanium and the addition of an intermediate layer (buffer) of nitride of the element used for doping. For more on homogeneously doped DLC layers, see "Hard carbon based films for biomedical applications".
  • Superlattices (different periodically repeating layers) find applications in thermoelectric generators (devices that convert temperature differences into electrical energy). Our laboratory has worked with the following materials: Bi2Te3, FeSb2Te, Ce0,1Fe0,7Co3,3Sb12, CoSb3:Yb (Yb0,19Co4Sb12)

Plasma plume of active waveguides based on erbium-doped YAG matrix

Plasma plume of active waveguides based on erbium-doped YAG matrix

Gradient layer based on titanium-doped diamond-like carbon and titanium nitride

Test samples (top row) and reference samples (bottom row) for evaluating the heat resistance of the coatings





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