Targeting the mTOR Signaling Pathway Utilizing Nanoparticles: A Critical Overview


Proteins of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis are overexpressed or mutated in cancers. However, clinical inhibition of mTOR signaling as a therapeutic strategy in oncology shows rather limited progress. Here, we critically analyze the current literature on the modulation of mTOR activity by nanoparticles, demonstrate the complexity of cellular responses to functionalized nanoparticles, and underline challenges lying in the identification of the molecular mechanisms of mTOR signaling affected by nanoparticles.