I deal with photoelectron microscopy (PEEM) and spectroscopy (XPS when excited by X-rays and UPS with ultraviolet radiation) at a NanoESCA instrument on various materials. These must be at least slightly conductive and have a smooth surface, like metals, semiconductors, thin organic layers and even ultra-thin non-conductive layers on conductive substrates. Various combinations of microscopy with spectroscopy are also possible, including angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES).

ORCID 0000-0003-4150-139X